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Bruxism or Tooth grinding is the gnashing or grinding of the teeth when not chewing or swallowing, as the teeth naturally come in contact. Although it may occur both by day and night, such grinding normally occurs during sleep. It is also referred to as sleep bruxism, or SB.

Tooth grinding has many consequences:

Tooth grinding in figures

SB is reported by 8% of the adult population and close to 14% of children have been reported to grind their teeth a few times per week. Although SB declines with age, in teenagers the prevalence is 12%, declining to 3% in people age 60 or over. The exact causes of SB are actually unknown. However, daytime anxiety and stress could be possible triggers. During sleep, fast breathing and heart activity associated with systems that maintain regular sleep may also trigger SB. The role of dental occlusion, i.e. how the teeth come

into contact when chewing, is open to debate.

The diagnosis is based on:

Some cases require an evaluation by a sleep specialist if there is severe pain, teeth chattering or difficulty breathing at night.


SB can be treated through relaxation therapy, physiotherapy and wearing an oral splint to prevent tooth damage. An oral splint is a custom-made acrylic device made from a tooth imprint, covering the chewing surface of the teeth. It is worn during the day or at night

and prevents contact between the upper and lower teeth.

Some other advice to our patients: